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「英语语法」直接引语变间接引语详解和练习题

发布日期:2019-08-18 18:24    作者:乐飞英语网

  当我们转述别人的话时,可以引用别人的原话,被引用的部分称为直接引语;也可以用自己的话转述别人的意思,被转述的部分称为间接引语。间接引语多数构成宾语从句,直接引语变间接引语时,须在时态以及代词、状语等方面作一些必要的调整,小编总结了以下几种变化:

  第一、时态的转变

  如主句的谓语动词为过去时态,间接引语中的谓语动词一般按下列规律变动:

直接引语 间接引语
一般现在时 一边过去时
现在进行时 过去进行时
现在完成时 过去完成时
一般将来时 一般过去将来时
现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时
一般过去时 (多数变为)过去完成时

  试比较以下两组直接引语变间接引语的时态转变:

  第一组:

  "She‘s preparing her lessons,"I said.

  我说:“她在准备功课。”(直接引语)

  I said (that) she was preparing her lessons.

  我说她在准备功课。(间接引语)

  第二组:

  He said to me,“Jane spent all her time doing that.”

  他对我说:“简做那件事花了她全部时间。”(直接引语)

  He told me (that) Jane had spent all her time doing that.

  他告诉我简做那件事花了她全部时间。(间接引语)

  第二、代词的变动

  代词要根据句中的意义作相应的变动,如:

  “I haven't brought my dictionary,”the student said.

  那学生说:“我没有带词典。”

  The student said (that)he hadn't brought his dictionary.

  那学生说他没有带词典

  注意:this,these相应地改为that,those

  第三、状语的变动

  状语一般要按以下表格变动:

直接引语 间接引语
now then
ago before
today that day
this morning that morning
yesterday the day before
yesterday morning the morning before
tomorrow the next day,the following day,the day after
last week(month,etc) the week(month,etc) before
next week(month,etc) the week(month,etc) after,the following week(month,etc)
this week(month,etc) that week(month,etc)
here there

  "I'll come and see you again this evening,Tom."he said.

  他说:“汤姆,今天晚上我再来看你。”

  He told Tom (that) he would go and see him again that evening.

  他告诉汤姆那天晚上他再来看他。

  注意:动词come可根据具体情况相应地改为go

  第四、直接引语为疑问句时的变动

  当直接引语是疑问句时,除注意在人称、时态和状语等方面作相应的变动外,还要注意:

  1、间接引语中要用陈述句的语序;

  2、特殊疑问句的疑问词要保留;

  3、一般、选择或反意疑问句在间接引语前要加连词whether(或if),如:

  “Why do you speak English so fluently?”I said to him.

  我对他说:“你为什么英语说得如此流利?”

  I asked him why he spoke English so fluently.

  我问他为什么他讲英语如此流利。

  第五、直接引语为祈使句时的变动

  当直接引语为祈使句时,主句中的谓语动词在变动时往往根据直接引语中的口气换用ask,invite,advise,warn,tell,order等动词,而直接引语中的谓语动词则要变成动词不定式,如:

  “Please explain why you‘re two and a half hours late,”the boss said.

  老板说:“请解释一下你为什么迟到了两个半小时”

  The boss asked him to explain why he was two and a half hours late.

  老板要他解释一下为什么迟到了两个半小时

  练习题

  将下列句中的间接引语改为直接引语

  1、I ordered my boy to go home.

  2、The doctor advised her not to eat too much fat.

  3、He asked me whether I had any difficulty.

  练习题答案

  1、I said to ordered my boy,“Go home.”

  2、The doctor said to her,”Don't eat too much fat“

  3、”Have you any difficulty?“he asked me

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